Hitch seeks to explain how prices remain stable even when there is no collusion between oligopolies. Shortlived price wars between rival firms can still happen under the kinked demand curve model. The elasticity of demand, and hence the gradient of the demand curve, will be also be different. The kinked demand model and the stability of cooperation sergio currarini and marco a. How can game theory be linked to the kinked demand curve theory. Pdf on mar 1, 1986, ehud kalai and others published the kinked demand curve find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Equilibrium of firm under perfect competition piyush kumar. In the first place, as the demand curve or the average revenue ar curve of the firm has a kink, its mr curve cannot be obtained as a continuous curve. The kinkeddemand curve model also called sweezy model posits that price rigidity exists in an oligopoly because an oligopolistic firm faces a kinked demand curve, a demand curve in which the segment above the market price is relatively more elastic than the segment below it. When it was created, the idea fundamentally challenged classical economic tenets such as efficient markets and rapidly changing prices, ideas that underlie basic supply and demand models. The model advocates that the behavior of oligopolistic organizations remain stable when the price and output are determined. Pada model ini juga ditegaskan bahwa perubahan pada biaya jarang sekali diimbangi dengan perubahan pada harga pasar, dan bila perubahan pada harga pasar benar benar.
Kinked demand curve model price rigidity graph example. The kinked demand curve of oligopoly was developed by paul m. Sweezy argued that an ordinary demand curve does not apply to oligopoly markets and promotes a kinked demand curve from queens college in oxford, robert lowe hall and charles j. Starting from point k, if one firm felt that if it were to charge a higher unmatched price than its rivals, it would lose sales to these rivals, then its relevant perceived. The kinked demand curve theory of oligopoly has a distinguished lineage. If you do business studies a level as well, you have probably heard of the 4 ps marketing mix. Oligopoly kinked demand curve price marginal revenue marginal revenue 1 demand 1 demand 2 quantity marginal revenue 2. Kinked demand was an initial attempt to explain sticky prices. Mba2 oligopoly kinked demand curve assignment assi. Pdf the kinked demand curve, facilitating practices, and. This short revision video takes students through the kinked demand curve model of oligopoly and also looks at examples of nonprice. One example of a kinked demand curve is the model for an oligopoly. Understand the characteristics of this market structure with particular reference to the interdependence of firms explain the behaviour of firms in this market structure explain reasons for collusive and noncollusive behaviour evaluate the.
Oligopoly the kinked demand curve economics tutor2u. In other words a natural oligopoly would have a lrac curve and a demand curve that looks like. This model of oligopoly suggests that prices are rigid and that firms will face different effects for both increasing price or decreasing price. In this example, we assume firms have zero fixed costs. The market demand curve that each oligopolist faces is determined by the output and price decisions of the other firms in the oligopoly. Makalah pasar oligopoli kurva demand bengkok dan kartel. This paper revisits a particular behaviour for rms competing in imperfect competitive markets, underlying the well known model of kinked demand curve. Kinked demand curve model with criticisms oligopoly.
So when mc shifts in range, no change in price and output. The reaction of rivals to a price change depends on whether price is raised or lowered. The two seminal papers on kinked demand were written nearly simultaneously in 1939 on both sides of the atlantic. It has been observed that many oligopolistic industries exhibit an appreciable degree of price rigidity or stability. The kinked demand curve model of oligopoly assumes that. Unit 3 oligopoly and the kinked demand theory flashcards. It was argued that given an existing price in an oligopoly, if a. Instead of laying emphasis on priceoutput determination, the model explains the behavior of oligopolistic organizations. In particular, the upper section of the kinked demand curve has a higher price elasticity than the lower part. These conclusions supply a rigorous model that justifies sweezys kinked demand curve model that showed why a set of oligopolists. The kinked demand curve revisited ryerson university. The kinked demand curve, yaitu kurva permintaan untuk mengantisipasi apabila terjadi kenaikan harga dan kurva permintaan untuk mengantisipasi apabila terjadi penurunan harga.
In the oligopoly model under discussion, the properties of the kinked demand curve as well as its significance are especially discussed. Oligopoly characteristics economics online economics. There are different diagrams that you can use to explain 0ligopoly markets. One of the oldest and most popular approach to kinked demand curves is sweezys oligopoly model sweezy, 1939. Kinked demand curve model of oligopoly with diagram. It was originally formulated as a theory of price rigidity. This essay will discuss the characteristics of oligopoly market, and then discuss the kinked demand curve, nonprice competition and the marketing mix in the oligopoly market. Paul sweezy of harvard college published demand under conditions of oligopoly. Kinked demand financial definition of kinked demand. This theory is used to explain price stability in an oligopolistic market. The kinkeddemand curve theory is an economic theory regarding oligopoly and monopolistic competition. My 60 second explanation of noncolluding oligopolies and the kinked demand curve model. The demand curve is relatively inelastic in this context. For a natural oligopoly there must again be substantial economies of scale but enough to support more than just one firm.
It is important to bear in mind, there are different possible ways that firms in oligopoly can behave. In your own words, describe why firms face this situation. The industry supply curve is derived through the horizontal summation of firm. In other words, in many oligopolistic industries prices remain sticky or inflexible, that is, there is no tendency on the part of the oligopolists to change the price even if the. Nonprice competition this is an important aspect of oligopoly because, as we have seen with the kinked demand curve model, price competition is difficult. Textbook departures from the original sweezy model by surendra k. Starting from point p, corresponding to the point op 1, any increase in price above it will considerably reduce his sales as his rivals will not. The kinked demand curve model scool, the revision website. A kinked demand curve theory was developed in 1939 of noncollusive oligopoly. Consider the curve shown in the figure below, which shows the market demand, marginal cost, and marginal revenue curve for firms in an oligopolistic industry. By implication, demand responses are more elastic for price increases than for price decreases and thus firms face a downwardsloping demand curve that is kinked at the consumers reference price. Put forward independently by hall and hitch 1939 and sweezy 1939, this theory sought to explain the rigidity of prices under oligopoly.
A kinked demand curve occurs when the demand curve is not a straight line but has a different elasticity for higher and lower prices. If a firm raises its price, its rivals will not follow suit b. Sweezy and hence this is also called as sweezys curve. The kinked demand curve model predicts there will be periods of relative price stability under an oligopoly with businesses focusing on nonprice competition as a means of reinforcing their market position and increasing their supernormal profits. The idea of the kinked demand curve is based on the different perception of the firms in imperfect markets. The curve is more elastic above the kink and less elastic below it. Advantages and disadvantages of the oligopoly market system. Price competition, kinked demand curves, and edgeworth cycles by eric maskin and jean tirole1 we provide game theoretic foundations for the classic kinked demand curve equilibrium and edgeworth cycle. Introduction the sweezy model of oligopoly appeared in 1939.
Remember that if you raise your price your demand will be. In the kinked demand curve model, the firm maximises profits at q1, p1 where mrmc. First of all, an oligopoly market means that several relatively interdependent companies which concentrate the supply and compete with each other. A rm conjectures that its rivals will match its price if it reduces. Oligopoly the kinked demand curve an explanation for price stability. The kinked demand curve theory of oligopoly assumes that rival firms. A behavioural approach to kinked demand curves munich.
Oligopoly kinked demand curve 2007 free download as powerpoint presentation. Hall and hitch, 1939 has been one of the staples of oligopoly theory. The kinked demand curve model predicts there will be periods of relative price stability under an oligopoly with businesses focusing on nonprice competition as a. The kinked demand curve, facilitating practices, and oligopolistic coordination. The kinked demand curve, facilitating practices, and oligopolistic. Mba2 oligopoly kinked demand curve assignment assignment directions. Oligopoly the kinked demand curve subscribe to email updates from tutor2u economics join s of fellow economics teachers and students all getting the tutor2u economics teams latest resources and support delivered fresh in their inbox every morning. Explanation of the kinkeddemand curve model in the figure above, kpd is the is the kinkeddemand curve and op 0 is the prevailing price in the oligopoly market for the or product of one seller. So they will have a tendency not to change the price at all. The kinked demand curve model makes a prediction that a business might reach a stable profitmaximising equilibrium at price p1 and output q1 and have little incentive to alter prices. In an oligopoly market, firms are interdependent before we start this explanation, kindly remember the elasticity at different points on a curve.
Another explanation of the rigidity of oligopoly prices is offered by the abnormal shape of an oligopolies marginal revenue curve, when it faces a kinked demand curve. Bhaskar university college london march 15, 2007 the kinked demand curve sweezy, 1939. This means that the response to aprice increase is less than the response to aprice decrease. The kinked demand curve model predicts that usually oligopolists will not find either prospect very attractive. The kinked demand model and the stability of cooperation. In this video, i cover the last of the four major market structures.282 1459 677 1230 452 1418 489 348 591 66 797 738 121 1161 1247 871 591 642 665 155 713 54 221 253 656 434 1203 237 1413 596 893 144 666 622 40 1183 57 999 816 951 1093 762